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Urban agriculture is a fast-growing field of research. Urbanization, urban poverty, food insecurity, rising food prices, growing dependence on food imports and challenges posed by climate change have placed food higher in urban agendas. In the recent years, urban planner and policymaking actors have turned their attention to urban food systems.

This paper attempts to determine how a sustainable food system can be shaped inside and within boarder of urban area. It studies a sustainable land use pattern that can be defined for periurban areas to make cities self-productive and ideal for plant growth while simultaneously enhancing city dweller’s lifestyle. A periurban and urban farming was defined as a mean of bringing food production into and within the open and built up spaces. The southern part of Piacenza city was chosen as a case study for survey to find a sustainable approach in food production and analysing its social and cultural effects besides investigating its roles in quality of life’s improvement. The urban and periurban farming is seeking to find methods of plant growth and raising livestock in urban environments and a systems for growing food in efficient ways. The research found that it is possible to create an ideal semi commercial plant growth within cities. Periurban neighbourhoods are suitable linkages between rural and urban areas, those areas surrounding cities, which are in most ways integrated with the city can be defined as the transition zone agricultural lands and cities. These areas will create new opportunities for semi commercial and community farming. The connection between urban and rural through periurban area creates a regional urban food network. In this network nodes are combination of natural resources, skilled people, institutions, economy, history, culture and living environments of food systems. These nodes are twofold; preparing the ground for semi commercial farming in periurban area and providing services for dense urban area to adapt farming into urban lifestyle.

In the years to come, future cities or smart cities will witness huge transformation into complex food generation systems, a move that would aim towards a more self-sustainable production of plants and livestock. Even though future cities would be termed more as “Energy Efficient” cities, the need of the hour is certainly to build a more self-sufficient method of producing food in the urban areas. In order to achieve this, it’s required to research and understand the food growing patterns and land adoption practices in the periurban and urban areas. About 10,000 years ago, several groups of people deserted the universal and successful lifestyle embraced by the nomadic and started practicing their own agriculture cultivation for crops and raised animals for a variety of purposes. This transformation of food production method brought about the formation of primitive cities. It was Middle East that first saw the presence of farming, which composed of predominantly wheat and barley and from there on, it spread to Europe, West Asia and other western nations. The paper presents the transforming historical changes that happened in the food productivity by city dwellers, and how the developments in the urban world is set to change the course of food cycle within the cities. Even though the earlier cities were dominated by the first generation of farmers for their own safe heavens, the necessity to counter difficulties in feeding food to the urban states and food insecurity restored the agricultural approaches and productivity back into the cities. Contrasting the theory with the “Sitopia”, which meant restoring the production of food into wide-open spaces inside cities, the study here reveals the basis of the idea and the reasons why cities were forced to rethink the strategy adopted for urban development and bring in more food security to the overall food system.

As the vital resource for life, water has been a central theme on the international agenda for several decades. The impacts of climate change and drought have been highly problematic in developing countries. Agriculture and water scarcity have double-barrel effect on each other. Agriculture is the most important reason of water shortages in cities with agricultural based economy like Rafsanjan. The main agricultural product of Rafsanjan is pistachio. About 70 percent of total population of the city and its suburban areas are occupied in agriculture. Pistachio has an important contribution in economic situation of Rafsanjan’s residents and the country. In the last decades the city has faced with an extreme drought, the risk of major crop losses and water restrictions for its populat